Quanto ne sai?

SPORT SENZA DOPING informare per prevenire

Bibliografia scientifica


Bevande energetiche

1. Higgins JP, Tuttle TD, Higgins CL. Energy beverages: content and safety. Mayo Clin Proc 2010;85(11):1033-41. 

2. Duchan E, Patel ND, Feucht C. Energy drinks: a review of use and safety for athletes. Phys Sportsmed 2010;38(2):171-9.

3. Bishop D. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance. Sports Med 2010;40(12):995-1017.

4. Ballard SL, Wellborn-Kim JJ, Clauson KA. Effects of commercial energy drink consumption on athletic performance and body composition. Phys Sportsmed 2010;38(1):107-117.

5. Davis JM, Burgess WA, Slentz CA, Bartoli WP, Pate RR. Effects of ingesting 6% and 12% glucose/electrolyte beverages during prolonged intermittent cycling in the heat. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1988;57(5):563-569.

6. Desbrow B, Biddulph C, Devlin B, Grant GD, Anoopkumar-Dukie S, Leveritt MD. The effects of different doses of caffeine on endurance cycling time trial performance. J Sports Sci 2012;30(2):115-20.

7. Clauson KA, Shields KM, McQueen CE, Persad N. Safety issues associated with commercially available energy drinks. J Am Pharm Assoc 2008;48(3):e55-e63.

8. Smith N, Atroch AL. Guaran·ís journey from regional tonic to aphrodisiac and global energy drink. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2007;5(10):5.

9. Bahrke MS, Morgan WP, Stegner A. Is ginseng an ergogenic aid? Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2009;19(3):298-322.

10. el-Sayed MS, MacLaren D, Rattu AJ. Exogenous carbohydrate utilisation: effects on metabolism and exercise performance. Comp Biochem Physiol Physiol 1997;118(3):789-803.

11. Burke LM, Millet G, Tarnopolsky MA; International Association of Athletics Federations. Nutrition for distance events J Sports Sci 2007;25(suppl 1):S29-S38. [published correction appears in J Sports Sci 2009;27(6):667].

12. Jeukendrup AE, Jentjens RL, Moseley L. Nutritional considerations in triathlon. Sports Med 2005;35(2):163-181.

13. Dhingra R, Sullivan L, Jacques PF, Wang TJ, Fox CS, Meigs JB, D'Agostino RB, Gaziano JM, Vasan RS. Soft drink consumption and risk of developing cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged adults in the community. Circulation 2007;116(5):480-8.

14. Berger AJ, Alford K. Cardiac arrest in a young man following excess consumption of caffeinated "energy drinks." Med J Aust 2009;190(1):41-43.

15. Committee on Nutrition and the Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness. Sports drinks and energy drinks for children and adolescents: are they appropriate? Pediatrics 2011;127(6):1182-9.



1. Bishop D. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance. Sports Med 2010;40(12):995-1017.

2. Tokish JM, et al. Ergogenic aids: a review of basic science, performance, side effects, and status in sports. Am J Sports Med 2004;32(6):1543-53.

3. Spencer M, et al. Physiological and metabolic responses of repeated-sprint activities: specific to field-based team sports. Sports Med 2005;35(12):1025-44.

4. Juhn M. Popular sports supplements and ergogenic aids. Sports Med 2003;33(12):921-39.

5. Williams MH. The ergogenics edge. 1st ed. Champaign, (IL): Human Kinetics, 1998 J Athl Train 1998;33(3):283-284.

6. Enoka RM, Stuart DG. Neurobiology of muscle fatigue. J Appl Physiol 1992;72(5):1631-48.

7. Gandevia SC. Spinal and supraspinal factors in human muscle fatigue. Physiol Rev 2001;81(4):1725-89.

8. Racinais S, et al. Muscle deoxygenation and neural drive to the muscle during repeated sprint cycling. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007;39(2):268-74.

9. Balsom PD, et al. Maximal-intensity intermittent exercise: effect of recovery duration. Int J Sports Med 1992;13(7):528-33.

10. FitzSimons M, et al. Cycling and running tests of repeated sprint ability. Aust J Sci Med Sport 1993;25:82-7.

11. Bishop D, Claudius B. Effects of induced metabolic alkalosis on prolonged intermittent-sprint performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005;37(5):759-67.

12. Balsom PD, et al. Physiological responses to maximal intensity intermittent exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 1992;65(2):144-9.

13. Spencer M, et al. Reliability of a repeated-sprint test for field-hockey. J Sci Med Sport 2006;9(1-2):181-4.

14. Edge J, et al. Effects of high- and moderateintensity training on metabolism and repeated sprints. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005;37(11):1975-82.

15. Tarnopolsky MA. Caffeine and creatine use in sport. Ann Nutr Metab 2010;57 Suppl 2:1-8.

16. Francaux M, Poortmans JR. Side effects of creatine supplementation in athletes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2006;1(4):311-23.

17. Gualano B, et al. In sickness and in health: the widespread application of creatine supplementation. Amino Acids 2012;43(2):519-29.

18. Kim HJ, et al. Studies on the safety of creatine supplementation. Amino Acids. 2011;40(5):1409-18.

19. Ostojic SM, Ahmetovic Z. Gastrointestinal distress after creatine supplementation in athletes: are side effects dose dependent? Res Sports Med 2008;16(1):15-22.

20. Thorsteinsdottir B, et al. Acute renal failure in a young weight lifter taking multiple food supplements, including creatine monohydrate. J Ren Nutr 2006;16(4):341-5.

21. Schroeder C, et al. The effects of creatine dietary supplementation on anterior compartment pressure in the lower leg during rest and following exercise. Clin J Sport Med 2001;11(2):87-95.

22. Gross M, et al. Ribose administration during exercise: effects on substrates and products of energy metabolism in healthy subjects and a patient with myoadenylate deaminase deficiency. Klin Wochenschr 1991;69(4):151-5.

23. Gross M, et al. Metabolism of D-ribose administered continuously to healthy persons and to patients withmyoadenylate deaminase deficiency. KlinWochenschr 1989;67(23):1205-13.

24. Opít Eijnde B, et al. No effects of oral ribose supplementation on repeated maximal exercise and de novo ATP resynthesis. J Appl Physiol 2001;91(5):2275-81.

25. Van Gammeren D, et al. The effects of four weeks of ribose supplementation on body composition and exercise performance in healthy, young, male recreational bodybuilders: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Curr Ther Res 2002;63(8):486-95.

26. van Hall G, et al. Ingestion of branched-chain amino acids and tryptophan during sustained exercise in man: failure to affect performance. J Physiol 1995;486(Pt 3):789-94.

27. Davis JM, et al. Effects of branched-chain amino acids and carbohydrate on fatigue during intermittent, high-intensity running. Int J Sports Med 1999;20(5):309-14.

28. Meeusen R, et al. The brain and fatigue: new opportunities for nutritional interventions? J Sports Sci 2006;24(7):773-82.

29. Shimomura Y, et al. Exercise promotes BCAA catabolism: effects of BCAA supplementation on skeletal muscle during exercise. J Nutr 2004;134(6 Suppl):1583S-1587S.

30. Ohtani M, et al. Amino acid mixture improves training efficiency in athletes. J Nutr 2006;136(2):538S-43S.

31. Slater GJ, Jenkins D. Beta-hydroxy-Beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation and the promotion of muscle growthand strength. Sports Med 2000;30(2):105-16.

32. Sweeney K, et al. The effect of b-alanine supplementation on power production during repeated sprint activity. J Strength Cond Res 2010;24(1):79-87.

33. Van Thienen R, et al. Beta-alanine improves sprint performance in endurance cycling. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2009;41(4):898-903.

34. Harris RC, et al. The absorption of orally supplied Beta-alanine and its effect on muscle carnosine synthesis in human vastus lateralis. Amino Acids 2006;30(3):279-89.

35. Bain MA, et al. Disposition and metabolite kinetics of oral L-carnitine in humans. J Clin Pharmacol 2006;46(10):1163-1170.

36. Karlic H, Lohninger A. Supplementation of L-carnitine in athletes: does it make sense? Nutrition 2004;20(7-8):709-715.

37. Oopik V, et al. Effects of sodium citrate ingestion before exercise on endurance performance in well trained college runners. Br J Sports Med 2003;37(6):485-9.

38. Bates N. Poisoning: sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate. Emerg Nurse 2003;11(2):33-7.

39. Green GA, et al. Analysis of over-the counter dietary supplements. Clin J Sport Med 2001;11(4):254-9.

40. Maughan RJ. Contamination of dietary supplements and positive drug tests in sport. J Sports Sci 2005;23(9):883-9.

41. Baume N, et al. Research of stimulants and anabolic steroids in dietary supplements. Scand J Med Sci Sports 2006;16(1):41-8.



1. Hilderbrand RL. High-Performance Sport, Marijuana, and Cannabimimetics. J Anal Toxicol 2011;35(9):624-637.

2. Hall W. Adverse health effects of non-medical cannabis use. Lancet 2009;374(9698):1383-1391.

3. Bhattacharyya S, et al. Induction of psychosis by Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol reflects modulation of prefrontal and striatal function during attentional salience processing. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012;69(1):27-36.

4. No authors listed. Adverse effects of cannabis. Prescrire Int 2011;20(112):18-23.

5. Sewell R A, et al. The Effect of Cannabis compared with alcohol on driving Am J Addict.Am J Addict. 2009; 18(3): 185-193.

6. Gerberich SG, et al. Marijuana use and injury events resulting in hospitalization. Ann Epidemiol 2003;13(4):230-237.

7. Mura P, et al. Comparison of the prevalence of alcohol, cannabis and other drugs between 900 injured drivers and 900 control subjects: results of a French collaborative study. Forensic Sci Int 2003;133(1-2):79-85.

8. Ramaekers JG, et al. Dose related risk of motor vehicle crashes after cannabis use. Drug Alcohol Depend 2004;73(2):109-119.

9. Moving L, et al. Psychoactive substance use and the risk of motor vehicle accidents. Accid Anal Prev 2004;36(4):631-636.

10. Drummer OH, et al. The involvement of drugs in drivers of motor vehicles killed in Australian road traffic crashes. Accid Anal Prev 2004;36(2):239-248.

11 . Laumon B., et al. Cannabis intoxication and fatal road crashes in France: population bases case-control study. Br Med J 2005;331(7529):1371.

12. Ronen A, et al. Effects of THC on driving performance, physiological state and subjective feelings relative to alcohol. Acc Anal Prev 2008;40(3):926-934.

13. Karschner EL, et al. Implications of plasma Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-hydroxy-THC, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC concentrations in chronic cannabis smokers. J Anal Toxicol 2009;33(8):469-77.

14. Kalant H. Adverse effects of cannabis on health: an update of the literature since 1996. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2004;28(5):849-863.

15. Maldonado R. et al. Cannabinoid addiction: behavioral models and neural correlates. J Neurosci 2002;22(9):3326-3331.

16. Fattore L, et al. Cannabinoids and reward: interactions with the opioid system. Crit Rev Neurobiol 2004;16(1-2):147-158.

17. Lessem JM, et al. Relationship between adolescent marijuana use and young adult illicit drug use. Behav Genet 2006 Jul;36(4):498-506.

18. Buckman JF, et al. Risk profile of male college athletes who use performance enhancing substances. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2009;70(6):919-923.

19. Higgins JP, et al., Energy beverages: content and safety. Mayo Clin Proc 2010;85(11):1033-41.

20. Bishop D. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance. Sports Med 2010;40(12):995-1017.


Stimolanti del sistema nervoso

1. Deventer K, et al. Prevalence of legal and illegal stimulating agents in sports. Anal Bioanal Chem 2011;401(2):421-32.

2. Strano Rossi S, BotrË F. Prevalence of illicit drug use among the Italian athlete population with special attention on drugs of abuse: a 10-year review. J Sports Sci 2011;29(5):471-6.

3. Lynch GS, Schertzer JD, Ryall JG. Anabolic agents for improving muscle regeneration and function after injury. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2008;35(7):852-8.

4. Armstrong DJ, Mottram DR. Beta-2 agonists. In: Mottram DR, editor. Drugs in sport. 5th ed. London: Mottram DR; 2011, p. 98-114 [Chapter 6].

5. Mottram DR. Stimulants. In: Mottram DR, editor. Drugs in sport. 5th ed. London: Mottram DR; 2011. p. 172-192 [Chapter 12].

6. Docherty JR. Pharmacology of stimulants prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Br J Pharmacol 2008;154(3):606-22.

7. Nikolopoulos DD, et al. Doping and musculoskeletal system: short-term and long-lasting effects of doping agents. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2011;25(5):535-63.

8. Mittleman MA, et al. Triggering of myocardial infarction by cocaine. Circulation 1999;99(21):2737-2741.

9. Al-Sahli W, et al. Effects of methylenedioxymethamphetamine on noradrenaline- evoked contractions of rat right ventricle and small mesenteric artery. Eur J Pharmacol 2001;422(1-3):169-174.

10. Drezner JA. Sudden cardiac death in young athletes. Causes, athleteís heart, and screening guidelines. Postgrad Med 2000;108(5):37-44,47-50.

11. Haller CA, Benowitz NL. Adverse cardiovascular and central nervous system events associated with dietary supplements containing ephedra alkaloids. N Engl J Med 2000;343(25):1833-8.

12. Mottram DR. Beta blockers. In: Mottram DR, editor. Drugs in sport. 5th ed. London: Mottram DR; 2011. p. 235-243 [Chapter 17].


Ormoni androgeni e steroidi anabolizzanti

1. Lippi G, Franchini M, Banfi G. Biochemistry and physiology of anabolic androgenic steroids doping. Mini Rev Med Chem 2011;11(5):362-73.

2. Wood RI, Stanton SJ. Testosterone and sport: current perspectives. Horm Behav 2012;61(1):147-55.

3. van Amsterdam J, Opperhuizen A, Hartgens F. Adverse health effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2010;57(1):117-23.

4. Oberlander JG, Henderson LP. The Sturm und Drang of anabolic steroid use: angst, anxiety, and aggression. Trends Neurosci 2012;35(6):382-92.

5. Lumia AR, McGinnis MY. Impact of anabolic androgenic steroids on adolescent males. Physiol Behav 2010;100(3):199-204.

6. Eklof AC, et al. The anti-doping hot-line, a means to capture the abuse of doping agents in the Swedish society and a new service function in clinical pharmacology. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2003;59(8-9),571-577.

7. Velazquez I, Alter BP. Androgens and liver tumors: Fanconiís anemia and non-Fanconiís conditions. Am J of Hematol 2004;77(3):257-67.

8. Tentori L, Graziani G. Doping with growth hormone/IGF-1, anabolic steroids or erythropoietin: is there a cancer risk? Pharmacol Res 2007;55(5):359-69.

9. Shirai T, Takahashi S, Cui L, Futakuchi M, Kato K, Tamano S, et al. Experimental prostate carcinogenesisórodent models. Mut Res 2000;462(2-3):219-26.

10. Leung G, Tsao SW, Wong YC. Sex hormone-induced mammary carcinogenesis in female Noble rats: detection of differentially expressed genes. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2003;77(1):49-63.

11. Singh DK, Lippman SM. Cancer chemoprevention. Part 2: Hormones, nonclassic antioxidant natural agents, NSAIDs, and other agents. Oncology 1998;12(12):1787-800.

12. Mayer D, Forstner K. Impact of dehydroepiandrosterone on hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat. Int J Oncol 2004;25(4):1021-30.

13. Overly WL, Dankoff JA, Wang BK, Singh UD. Androgens and hepatocellular carcinoma in an athlete. Ann Intern Med 1984;100(1):158-9.

14. Goldman B. Liver carcinoma in an athlete taking anabolic steroids. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1985;85(2):56.

15. Creagh TM, Rubin A, Evans DJ. Hepatic tumours induced by anabolic steroids in an athlete. J Clin Pathol 1988;41(4):441-3.

16. Bagia S, Hewitt PM, Morris DL. Anabolic steroid-induced hepatic adenomas with spontaneous haemorrhage in a bodybuilder. Aust N Z J Surg 2000;70(9):686-7.

17. Socas L, Zumbado M, Perez-Luzardo O, Ramos A, Perez C, Hernandez JR, et al. Hepatocellular adenomas associated with anabolic androgenic steroid abuse in bodybuilders: a report of two cases and a review of the literature. Br J Sports Med 2005;39(5):e27.

18. Snyder PJ. Androgens. In: Brunton LL, Chabner B, Knollman B, editors. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 12th ed. New York: Goodman & Gilmanís; 2011. p. 1195-1235 [Chapter 41].

19. George AJ. Androgenic anabolic steroids. In: Mottram DR, editor. Drugs in sport. 5th ed. London: Mottram DR; 2011. p. 49-81 [Chapter 4].

20. Gorayski P, et.al.. Hepatocellular carcinoma associated with recreational anabolic steroid use. Br J Sports Med 2008 Jan;42(1):74-5; discussion 75. Erratum in: Br J Sports Med 2009;43(10):764, Br J Sports Med 2010;44(13):e5.

21. Prat J, et al. Wilms tumor in an adult associated with androgen abuse. JAMA 1977;237(21):2322-3.

22. Bryden AA, Rothwell PJ, OíReilly PH. Anabolic steroid abuse and renal cell carcinoma. Lancet 1995;346(8985):1306-7.

23. Martorana G, et al. Anabolic steroid abuse and renal cell carcinoma. J Urol 1999;162(6):2089.

24. Parssinen M, Seppala T. Steroid use and long-term health risks in former athletes. Sports Med 2002;32(2):83-94.

25. Eliakim A, et al. A case study of virilizing adrenal tumor in an adolescent female elite tennis player--insight into the use of anabolic steroids in young athletes. J Strength Cond Res 2011;25(1):46-50.

26. Roberts JT, Essenhigh DM. Adenocarcinoma of prostate in 40-year-old body-builder. Lancet 1986;2(8509):742.

27. Street C, Antonio J, Cudlipp D. Androgen use by athletes: a reevaluation of the health risks. Can J Appl Physiol 1996;21(6):421-40.

28. Froehner M, et al. Intratesticular leiomyosarcoma in a young man after high dose doping with oral-turinabol: a case report. Cancer 1999;86(8):1571-5.

29. Parssinen M, et al. Increased premature mortality of competitive powerlifters suspected to have used anabolic agents. Int J Sports Med 2000;21(3):225-7.

30. Kaaks R, et al. Serum sex steroids in premenopausal women and breast cancer risk within the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC). J Natl Cancer Inst 2005;97(10):755-65.

31. Sarna S, et al. Increased life expectancy of world class male athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1993;25(2):237-244.

32. Kujala UM, et al. Prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease in former elite athletes. Metabolism 1994;43(10):1255-1260.


Ormone della crescita (GH)

1. WiddowsonWM, Gibney J. The effect of growth hormone replacement on exercise capacity in patients with GH deficiency: a meta-analysis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93(11):4413-4417.

2. WiddowsonWM,Gibney J.The effect of growth hormone (GH) replacement on muscle strength in patients with GH-deficiency: a meta-analysis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2010;72(6):787-792.

3. Tentori L, Graziani G. Doping with growth hormone/IGF-1, anabolic steroids or erythropoietin: is there a cancer risk? Pharmacol Res. 2007;55(5):359-69.

4. Saugy M, et al. Human growth hormone doping in sport. Br J Sports Med 2006;40(Suppl.1):i35-9.

5. Holdaway IM. Excess mortality in acromegaly. Horm Res 2007;68(Suppl 5):166-172.

6. Larsson O, Girnita A, Girnita L. Role of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor signalling in cancer. Br J Cancer 2005;92(12):2097-101.

7. Magnavita N, Teofili L, Leone G. Hodgkinís lymphoma in a cyclist treated with growth hormone. Am J Hematol 1996;52(1):65-6.

8. Tornell J, et al. High frequency of mammary adenocarcinomas in metallothionein promoterhuman growth hormone transgenic mice created from two different strains of mice. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1992;43(1-3):237–42.

9. Ogilvy-Stuart AL. Safety of growth hormone after treatment of a childhood malignancy. Horm Res 1995;44(Suppl. 3):73–9.

10. Wu JD, et al. Interaction of IGF signaling and the androgen receptor in prostate cancer progression. J Cell Biochem 2006;99(2):392–401.

11. Jenkins PJ, Besser M. Clinical perspective: acromegaly and cancer, a problem. J Clin Endocr and Metab 2001;86(7):2935–41.

12. Emerman JT, et al. Elevated growth hormone levels in sera from breast cancer patients. Horm Metab Res 1985;17(8):421–4.

13. Peyrat JP, et al. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations in human breast cancer. Eur J Cancer 1993;29A(4):492–7.

14. Endogenous Hormones and Breast Cancer Collaborative Group, et al. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), and breast cancer risk: pooled individual data analysis of 17 prospective studies. Lancet Oncol. 2010;11(6):530-42.

15. Roddam AW, et al. Insulin-like growth factors, their binding proteins, and prostate cancer risk: analysis of individual patient data from 12 prospective studies. Ann Intern Med. 2008 Oct 7;149(7):461-71, W83-8.

16. Chen B, et al. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and the risk of lung cancer: a meta-analysis based on nested case-control studies. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2009;28:89.

17. Ma J, Pollak MN, Giovannucci E, Chan JM, Tao Y, Hennekens CH, et al. Prospective study of colorectal cancer risk in men and plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-binding protein-3. J Natl Cancer Inst 1999;91(7):620–5.

18. Swerdlow AJ, Higgins CD, Adlard P, Preece MA. Risk of cancer in patients treated with human pituitary growth hormone in the UK, 1959–85: a cohort study. Lancet 2002;360(9329):273–7.

19. Cohen P, Clemmons DR, Rosenfeld RG. Does the GH-IGF axis play a role in cancer pathogenesis? Growth Horm IGF Res. 2000;10(6):297-305.

20. Mitchell G 2007 Report to the commissioner of baseball of an independent investigation into the illegal use of steroids and other performance enhancing substances by players in major league baseball.



1. Kaushanski K and Kipps TJ. Hematopoietic agents. In: Brunton LL, Chabner B, Knollman B, editors. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 12th ed. New York: Goodman & Gilmanís; 2011. p. 1067-1099 [Chapter 37].

2. Armstrong DJ. Enhanced oxygen transfer. In: Mottram DR, editor. Drugs in sport. 5th ed. London: Mottram DR; 2011. p. 132-154 [Chapter 9].

3. Ebert BL, Bunn HF. Regulation of the erythropoietin gene. Blood 1999;94(6):1864-1877.

4. Ogilvie M, et al. Erythropoietin stimulates proliferation and interferes with differentiation of myoblasts. J Biol Chem 2000;275(50):39754-39761.

5. Sakanaka M, et al. In vivo evidence that erythropoietin protects neurons from ischemic damage. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998;95(8):4635-4640.

6. Casadevall N, et al. Pure Red-Cell Aplasia and Antierythropoietin Antibodies in Patients Treated with Recombinant ErythropoietinN. Engl J Med 2002;346(7):469-475.

7. Bennett CL, et al. Long-term outcome of individuals with pure red cell aplasia and antierythropoietin antibodies in patients treated with recombinant epoetin: a follow-up report from the Research on Adverse Drug Events and Reports (RADAR) Project. Blood 2005;106:(10)3343-3347.

8. Pollock C, et al. Pure red cell aplasia induced by erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2008;3(1):193-9.

9. Parganas E, et al. Jak2 is essential for signaling through a variety of cytokine receptors. Cell 1998;93(3):385-395.

10. Socolovsky M, et al. Fetal anemia and apoptosis of red cell progenitors in Stat5añ/ñ5bñ/ñ mice: a direct role for Stat5 in Bcl-X(L) induction. Cell 1999;98(2):181-191.

11. Myklebust JH, et al. Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is important for erythropoietin-induced erythropoiesis from CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells. Exp Hematol 2002;30(9):990-1000.

12. Arcasoy MO, Jiang X. Co-operative signalling mechanisms required for erythroid precursor expansion in response to erythropoietin and stem cell factor. Br J Haematol 2005;130(1):121-129.

13. James C, et al. A unique clonal JAK2 mutation leading to constitutive signalling causes polycythaemia vera. Nature 2005;434(7037):1144-1148.

14. Hardee ME, et al. Erythropoietin biology in cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2006;12(2):332-339.

15. Yasuda Y, et al. Erythropoietin regulates tumour growth of human malignancies. Carcinogenesis 2003;24(6):1021-1029.

16. Carlini RG, et al. Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) increases endothelin-1 release by endothelial cells. Kidney Int 1993;43(5):1010-1014.

17. Carlini RG, Reyes AA, Rothstein M. Recombinant human erythropoietin stimulates angiogenesis in vitro. Kidney Int 1995;47(3):740-745.

18. Kertesz N, et al. The role of erythropoietin in regulating angiogenesis. Dev Biol 2004;276(1):101-110.

19. Anagnostou A, et al. Erythropoietin has a mitogenic and positive chemotactic effect on endothelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990;87(15):5978-5982.

20. Haller H, et al. Signal transduction of erythropoietin in endothelial cells. Kidney Int 1996;50(2):481-488.

21. Henke M, et al. Erythropoietin to treat head and neck cancer patients with anaemia undergoing radiotherapy: randomised, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2003;362(9392):1255-1260.

22. Leyland-Jones B, et al. Maintaining normal hemoglobin levels with epoetin a in mainly nonanemic patients with metastatic breast cancer receiving first-line chemotherapy: a survival study. J Clin Oncol 2005;23(25):5960-5972.

23. Henke M, et al. Do erythropoietin receptors on cancer cells explain unexpected clinical findings? J Clin Oncol 2006;24(29):4708-4713.

24. Bohlius J, et al. Recombinant human erythropoietins and cancer patients: updated meta-analysis of 57 studies including 9353 patients. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006;98(10):708-714.

25. Khuri FR. Weighing the hazards of erythropoiesis stimulation in patients with cancer. N Engl J Med 2007;356(24):2445-2448.

26. Henke M, et al. Do erythropoietin receptors on cancer cells explain unexpected clinical findings? J Clin Oncol 2006;24(29):4708-13. [Erratum, J Clin Oncol 2007;25(11):1457].

27. Aapro M, et al. Effects of erythropoietin receptors and erythropoiesis-stimulating agents on disease progression in cancer. Br J Cancer 2012;106(7):1249-58.

28. Tentori L, Graziani G. Doping with growth hormone/IGF-1, anabolic steroids or erythropoietin: is there a cancer risk? Pharmacol Res 2007;55(5):359-69.

29. Rosen FR, et al. Multicenter randomized phase II study of paclitaxel (1-hour infusion), fluorouracil, hydroxyurea, and concomitant twice daily radiation with or without erythropoietin for advanced head and neck cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2003;9(5):1689-1697.

30. Michael U, et al. Epoetin-alpha reduces red blood cell transfusions (RBC) in high-risk breast cancer patients with adjuvant dose-dense, sequential chemotherapy with epirubicin (E), paclitaxel (T) and cyclophosphamide (C) (ETC). 41st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, May 13ñ17, 2003, Orlando, FL. Abstract 613. J Clin Oncol 2005;23:613.

31. Bohlius J, et al. Recombinant human erythropoietin and overall survival in cancer patients: results of a comprehensive meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst 2005;97:7,489-498.

32. Blohmer JU, et al. Randomized phase III trial of sequential adjuvant chemoradiotherapy with or without erythropoietin Alfa in patients with high-risk cervical cancer: results of the NOGGO-AGO intergroup study. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(28):3791-7.

33. Elliott S, et al. Anti-Epo receptor antibodies do not predict Epo receptor expression. Blood 2006;107(5):1892-1895.

34. Anagnostou A, et al. Erythropoietin has a mitogenic and positive chemotactic effect on endothelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990;87(15):5978-5982.

35. Anagnostou A, et al. Erythropoietin receptor mRNA expression in human endothelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994;91(9):3974-3978.

36. Sinclair AM, et al. Functional erythropoietin receptor is undetectable in endothelial, cardiac, neuronal, and renal cells. Blood 2010;115(21):4264-72.

37. Jelkmann W, Lundby C. Blood doping and its detection. Blood 2011;118(9):2395-404.

38. Callaway E. Sports doping: Racing just to keep up. Nature 2011;475(7356):283-5.

39. John MJ, et al. Erythropoietin use and abuse. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2012;16(2):220-7.


Doping genetico

1. Wells DJ. Gene doping. In: Mottram DR, editor. Drugs in sport. 5th ed. London: Mottram DR; 2011. p. 160-172 [Chapter 11].

2. Azzazy HM, et al. Gene doping: of mice and men. Clin Biochem 2009;42(6):435-41.

3. Svensson EC, et al. Long-term erythropoietin expression in rodents and non-human primates following intramuscular injection of replication-defective adenoviral vector. Hum Gene Ther 1997;8(15):1797-806.

4. Zhou S, et al. Adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of erythropoietin leads to sustained elevation of hematocrit in nonhuman primates. Gene Ther 1998;5(5):665-70.

5. Gao G, et al. Erythropoietin gene therapy leads to autoimmune anemia in macaques. Blood 2004;103(9):3300-2.

6. Lasne F, et al. ëëGenetic dopingíí with erythropoietin cDNA in primate muscle is detectable. Mol Ther 2004;10(3):409-10.

7. Barton-Davis ER, et al. Viral mediated expression of insulin-like growth factor I blocks the aging-related loss of skeletal muscle function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1998;95(26):15603-7.

8. Lee S, et al. Viral expression of insulin-like growth factor-I enhances muscle hypertrophy in resistance-trained rats. J Appl Physiol 2004;96(3):1097-104. Erratum in: J Appl Physiol 2004;96(6):2343.

9. Sweeney HL. Gene doping. Sci Am 2004;291(1):62-9.

10. McPherron AC, Lee SJ. Double muscling in cattle due to mutations in the myostatin gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1997;94(23):12457-61.

11. Bogdanovich S, et al. Functional improvement of dystrophic muscle by myostatin blockade. Nature 2002;420(6914):418-21.

12. Schuelke M, et al. Myostatin mutation associated with gross muscle hypertrophy in a child. N Engl J Med 2004;350(26):2682-8.

13. BeytÌa Mde L, et al. Drug treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy: available evidence and perspectives. Acta Myol 2012;31(1):4-8.

14. Fakhfakh R, et al. Blocking the myostatin signal with a dominant negative receptor improves the success of human myoblast transplantation in dystrophic mice. Mol Ther 2011;19(1):204-10.

15. Grimaldi PA. Regulatory role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR delta) in muscle metabolism. A new target for metabolic syndrome treatment? Biochimie 2005;87(1):5-8.

16. Wang YX, et al. Regulation of muscle fiber type and running endurance by PPARdelta. PLoS Biol 2004;2(10):e294.

17. Takahashi S, et al. Peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor delta (PPARdelta), a novel target site for drug discovery in metabolic syndrome. Pharmacol Res 2006;53(6):501-7.

18. Gaffney GR, Parisotto R. Gene doping: a review of performance-enhancing genetics. Pediatr Clin North Am 2007;54(4):807-22.

19. Chenuaud P, et al. Autoimmune anemia in macaques following erythropoietin gene therapy. Blood 2004;103(9):3303-4.

20. Raper SE, et al. Fatal systemic inflammatory response syndrome in a ornithine transcarbamylase deficient patient following adenoviral gene transfer. Mol Genet Metab 2003;80(1-2):148-158.

21. Wilson JM. Lessons learned from the gene therapy trial for ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. Mol Genet Metab 2009;96(4):151-7.

22. Marshall E. Gene therapy death prompts review of adenovirus vector. Science 1999;286(5448):2244-5.

23. Woods NB, et al. Gene therapy: therapeutic gene causing lymphoma. Nature 2006;440(7088):1123.

24. Hacein-Bey-Abina S, et al. Efficacy of gene therapy for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency. N Engl J Med 2010;363(4):355-64.

25. Gaspar HB, et al. Gene therapy of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency by use of a pseudotyped gammaretroviral vector. Lancet 2004;364(9452):2181-7.

26. Jelkmann W, Lundby C. Blood doping and its detection. Blood 2011;118(9):2395-404.

27. Callaway E. Sports doping: Racing just to keep up. Nature 2011;475(7356):283-5.

28. John MJ, et al. Erythropoietin use and abuse. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2012;16(2):220-7.